UNIQUE PIPELINE

Tosk has patented two new pharmaceutical products and has two other preclinical-stage products in development.

TK-90: Our most advanced patented drug is targeted at mucositis side effect reduction. It successfully completed human trials to achieve Proof of Concept, and a follow up test to confirm results of the first trial is underway. We expect this test to be completed in the first half of the year. Mucositis is a side effect of a range of cancer treatments, including methotrexate, 5-FU, trastuzumab, pertuzumab, pertuzumab and radiation, which are used to treat breast, colon, head-and-neck, pancreatic cancers and leukemia. Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, throat, and digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy or radiation. Mucositis is costly to treat and may result in affecting or even terminating optimum treatment. Oral mucositis, inflammation and ulceration that occurs in the mouth, is a common and often debilitating complication of cancer treatment. Mucositis in the gut can introduce a route of infection that can be debilitating and potentially fatal. We anticipate that TK-90 will prove useful for other mucositis-causing cancer therapy and may have other applications outside of mucositis and cancer.

TK-39: Tosk’s second patented product has been developed to block the cardiotoxicity that results from a class of widely used cancer drugs known as anthracyclines. These include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, Doxii R and Herceptin R, which are used to treat breast, bladder, and lung cancers as well as lymphoma and leukemia. Damage to heart tissue caused by anthracyclines is permanent and limits the lifetime dose of these drugs. Many patients are forced to suspend treatment due to this adverse effect. Even at the lifetime limited dose, as many as 50 percent of patients suffer reduced heart function later in life. TK-39 will enter human trials this year.

TK-kRAS: Mutant genes promote many cancers, including 90 percent of pancreatic, 45 percent of colon and 35 percent of lung cancers and a portion of most other cancers. Traditional drug discovery methods have failed to find a way to block the effects of such genes on certain cancers, which have been characterized as "undruggable." These mutant genes are found in up to 40 percent of cancer patients, rendering certain cancer drugs, known as EGFR inhibitors, ineffective. Tosk, in conjunction with the company's Scientific Advisor Dr. Jeffey Thomas of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, and the National Cancer Institute, which has provided grants to Tosk, are working to overcome the obstacles presented by these genes. Using our proprietary Genetically Modified FlyTM model, we have identified leads that may block the effects of the "bad" genes, and are optimizing the leads using traditional medicinal chemistry methods to improve their effectiveness. This is a complex but potentially revolutionary breakthrough that will positively impact literally millions of cancer pateints throughout the world.

TK-88: Our other drug discovery initiative is designed to block the damage that widely used platinum-based drugs, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, can cause. These adverse effects can be permanent and include kidney damage, peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss.

There are very few early stage biopharma companies with four drugs in the pipeline.